Demographic Information

Rainfall, Climate, and Irrigation in Ghana

Cape Coast University conducted a 19 year rainfall study of the annual rainfall pattern of the rainy seasons in Ghana
​(3 rainfall distribution zones)

  • Northern zone: Approximate 40 inches average rainfall; 1 cropping season
  • Middle: Approximate 60 inches average rainfall; 2 crop seasons
  • Southern zone: Approximate 80 inches average rainfall; 2 crop seasons​


Rainfall in Ghana is unpredictable because each year the Tropical Rain Belt swings back and forth between the northern and southern tropics
Northern Ghana subject to heavy rainfall and then long dry spells associated with higher temperatures

  • This wreaks havoc on crop production and has forced natives to migrate

Both Formal (governmental resourced) irrigation and Informal Irrigation (i.e. Water Use Association WUA)


​Demographics (Via the CIA)

  • Almost 27 million people, as of July 2016
  • 57% of the population under the age of 25
  • Agriculture accounts for 19.5% of the country’s GDP
  • 44.7% of Ghanaians working in the agricultural sector (as of 2016)

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​Ghanaian Culture

  • Trade between villages and regions is prevalent in Ghana; they are very community oriented
  • Food waste as a result of inability to store
  • Farmers’ profits are squeezed by the instability of the system

Ghanaian Agriculture

Common Soil Types: Clay Loam or Sandy Loam
Low organic matter content in soils; more susceptible to erosion
Most Common Crops: Maize, Rice, Cowpea, Cassava, Yams, Sorghum, Tomatoes, Onion, Okra, Peanuts, Shea Nuts, and Eggplant
Ghana’s main export crop is Cocoa beans; they are the second-largest producer in the world.